Utu astika rimaykuna

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Kayman riy: wamp'una, maskana
Hukllachasqa Amirika Suyukunapi, chincha Mishikupi utu astika rimaykuna.
Mishikupi utu astika rimaykuna.

Utu astika rimaykuna nisqaqa huk Awya Yala rimaykunap ayllunmi, Chinchay Awya Yalapi Chawpi Awya Yalapipas.

Huk Utu astika rimaykuna[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Paqta rimakuna[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Huk utu astika rimaykunapi paqta rimakuna
ñawpa Hopi Nawa Wichol Kumanchi O'odham Oob No'ok Yaki Mayo Raramuri Warijío
'ñawi' *pusi pūsi iš- hixie pui hehewo vuhi pūsim pūsi busí pusi
'rinri' *naka naqvu nakas- naka naki nahk naka nakam naka nalá nahka-
'sinqa' *yaka yaqa yaka- thahk daka yeka yeka aká yahka-
'simi' *tini mo'a tēn- teni tīpe chini teni tēni tēni riní
'kiru' *tami tama tlam- tame tāma tahtami tatami tamim tami ramé tame-
'usa' *'ati atem- 'ate a'ati ete ete ehte
'challwa' *mutsi mich- musí
'pisqu' *tsūtu tsiro tōtol- tosapiti' churugí chu'ruki
'killa' *mītsa mūyau mēts- metsa mïa mashath masadi mēcha mēcha micha mecha
'yaku' *pā' pāhu ā- ha wa'ig bā'am vā'a bā'wí pa'wi
'nina' *tahi tle- tai ta'i taji tahi na'i
'uchpa' *nasi neš- naxi mahta naposa naposa napisó nahpiso
'suti' *tekwa tōka- te'ega team tewa riwá tewa
'puñuy' *kotsi kochi- kutsi kohsig kosia koche kōche kochí kochi
'riqsiy' *māti mati mātia machí machi
'rikuy'1 *pita itta bicha bicha
'rikuy'2 *tiwa tuwa mātia ritiwá tewa
'quy' *maka maka makia maka māka
'rawray' *taha tlala tai- taya taya rajá taha-
'ñuqa' *na'a nu' ni-/no-/na ne ni ni āni/in inepo/ne/ni inapo nijé nē-/ no'o
'qam' 'um mo- en am empo empo mujé amo/ mū
'pi?' *'akw hak ak- hakari hedai heri jabē have ābu
'huk' *sim- sūkya sēm xewi sïmï hemako hemak sēun
'iskay' *wō- lōyom ōme huta waha gohk goka gōi wōyi okuá woka
'kimsa' *pahayu pāyom ēyi haika pahi waik baih bikiyá

Utu astika rimaykunap urin ayllunkuna[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Chincha utu astika rimaykuna[1]

Hopi [2]

Tübatulabal [3]

Numic [4]

Takic [22]

Serrano-Gabrielino
Serran
Serrano [23]
Kitanemuk [24]
Gabrielino-Fernandeño
Cupan
Cahuilla-Cupeño
Cahuilla [25]
Cupeño [26]
Luiseño-Juaneño [27]

Urin utu astika rimaykuna[1]

Pimanu (Tepiman)

Pima-Papago icha O'odham [28] (Upper Piman)
Uran Pima [29] (Pima Bajo, Lower Piman)
Tepewan simi icha O'otham (chincha, [30] uralan [31])
Tepekanu [32]

Tarakahitiku

Tarawmaranu
Raramuri (Tarawmara) [33]
Warijío [34] (Varihio)
Tubar [35]
Kahita [36] (Yaki [37]-Mayo [38]-Kahita)
Opatan
Ópata [39]
Eudeve [40] ? (Heve, Dohema)

Corachol-Aztecan

Kora-Wichol
Kora [41]
Wichol [42]
Nawanu [43] (Aztecan, Nahua, Nahuatlan)
Pochutika [44]
Huk'i Nawa
Pipil (Nahuate, Nawat) [45])
Nawatl [46] (Mexicano, Aztec )

Willay pukyukuna[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Many recent linguists have not accepted the validity of the division between Northern and Southern Uto-Aztecan as a genuine genetic branching. They have either recognized seven to nine independent branches of Uto-Aztecan or accepted Southern Uto-Aztecan but recognized four independent branches in the place of Northern Uto-Aztecan (Goddard 1996:7; Miller 1983:118; Mithun 1999:539-540).
  2. Benjamin Lee Whorf. 1946. "The Hopi Language, Toreva Dialect," Linguistic Structures of Native America. Ed. Cornelius Osgood. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology 6. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation. Pages 158-183.
    LaVerne Masayesva Jeanne. 1978. "Aspects of Hopi grammar," Massachusetts Institute of Technology PhD dissertation.
    Hopi Dictionary Project. 1998. Hopi Dictionary: Hopìikwa Lavàytutuveni: A Hopi-English Dictionary of the Third Mesa Dialect With an English-Hopi Finder List and a Sketch of Hopi Grammar. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  3. C.F. Voegelin. 1935. Tübatulabal Grammar. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 34/2. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    C.F. Voegelin. 1958. "Working Dictionary of Tubatulabal," International Journal of American Linguistics 24:221-228.
  4. David Iannucci. 1972. "Numic historical phonology," Cornell University PhD dissertation.
    Michael Nichols. 1973. "Northern Paiute historical grammar," University of California, Berkeley PhD dissertation
    Wick R. Miller. 1986. "Numic Languages," Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 11, Great Basin. Ed. by Warren L. d’Azevedo. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Pages 98-106.
  5. Lila Wistrand Robinson & James Armagost. 1990. Comanche Dictionary and Grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics Publication 92. Dallas, Texas: The Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.
    Jean O. Charney. 1993. A Grammar of Comanche. Studies in the Anthropology of North American Indians. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
  6. Jon P. Dayley. 1989. Tümpisa (Panamint) Shoshone Grammar. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 115. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
    Jon P. Dayley. 1989. Tümpisa (Panamint) Shoshone Dictionary. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 116. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
  7. John E. McLaughlin. 2006. Timbisha (Panamint). Languages of the World/Materials 453. Muenchen: LINCOM Europa.
  8. Richley H. Crapo. 1976. Big Smokey Valley Shoshoni. Desert Research Institute Publications in the Social Sciences 10. Reno: University of Nevada Press.
    Beverly Crum & Jon Dayley. 1993. Western Shoshoni Grammar. Boise State University Occasional Papers and Monographs in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics Volume No. 1. Boise, Idaho: Department of Anthropology, Boise State University.
  9. Wick R. Miller. 1972. Newe Natekwinappeh: Shoshoni Stories and Dictionary. University of Utah Anthropological Papers 94. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
    Wick R. Miller. 1996. "Sketch of Shoshone, a Uto-Aztecan Language," Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17, Languages. Ed. Ives Goddard. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Pages 693-720.
  10. Drusilla Gould & Christopher Loether. 2002. An Introduction to the Shoshoni Language: Dammen Daigwape. Salt Lake City, Utah: The University of Utah Press.
  11. D.B. Shimkin. 1949. "Shoshone, I: Linguistic Sketch and Text," International Journal of American Linguistics 15:175-188.
    D. B. Shimkin. 1949. "Shoshone II: Morpheme List," International Journal of American Linguistics 15.203-212.
    Malinda Tidzump. 1970. Shoshone Thesaurus. Grand Forks, North Dakota.
  12. Maurice L. Zigmond, Curtis G. Booth, & Pamela Munro. 1991. Kawaiisu, A Grammar and Dictionary with Texts. Ed. Pamela Munro. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 119. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.
  13. Margaret L. Press. 1979. Chemehuevi, A Grammar and Lexicon. University of California Publications in Linguistics Volume 92. Berkeley, California. University of California Press.
    Laird, Carobeth. 1976. The Chemehuevis. Malki Museum Press, Banning, California.
  14. Edward Sapir. 1930. Southern Paiute, a Shoshonean Language. Reprinted in 1992 in: The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography. Ed. William Bright. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
    Edward Sapir. 1931. Southern Paiute Dictionary. Reprinted in 1992 in: The Collected Works of Edward Sapir, X, Southern Paiute and Ute Linguistics and Ethnography. Ed. William Bright. Berlin: Mouton deGruyter.
    Pamela A. Bunte. 1979. "Problems in Southern Paiute Syntax and Semantics," Indiana University Ph.D. dissertation.
  15. Talmy Givón. 1980. Ute Reference Grammar. 1st edition. Ignacio, Colorado: Ute Press.
    Jean O. Charney. 1996. A Dictionary of the Southern Ute Language. Ignacio, Colorado: Ute Press.
  16. Sidney M. Lamb. 1957. "Mono Grammar," University of California, Berkeley Ph.D. dissertation.
    Rosalie Bethel, Paul V. Kroskrity, Christopher Loether, & Gregory A. Reinhardt. 1993. A Dictionary of Western Mono. 2nd edition.
  17. Evan J. Norris. 1986. "A Grammar Sketch and Comparative Study of Eastern Mono," University of California, San Diego Ph.D. dissertation.
  18. Anonymous. 1987. Yerington Paiute Grammar. Anchorage, Alaska: Bilingual Education Services.
    Arie Poldevaart. 1987. Paiute-English English-Paiute Dictionary. Yerington, Nevada: Yerington Paiute Tribe.
  19. Allen Snapp, John Anderson, & Joy Anderson. 1982. "Northern Paiute," Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar, Volume 3, Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics Publication Number 57, Volume III. Dallas, Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 1-92.
  20. Timothy John Thornes. 2003. "A Northern Paiute Grammar with Texts," University of Oregon Ph.D. dissertation.
  21. Sven Liljeblad. 1966-1967. "Northern Paiute Lessons," manuscript.
    Sven Liljeblad. 1950. "Bannack I: Phonemes," International Journal of American Linguistics 16:126-131
  22. In addition to the Takic languages considered by Campbell, Tataviam has been recognized as a separate Takic language (Goddard 1996:7; Mithun 1999:539). Tataviam has sometimes been called by a Chumash name, Alliklik, although other scholars have reserved that name for a Chumash dialect or language (cf. Campbell 1997:135; Mithun 1999:544)
  23. Kenneth C. Hill. 1967. "A Grammar of the Serrano Language," University of California, Los Angeles PhD dissertation.
  24. Alice J. Anderton. 1988. "The Language of the Kitanemuks of California," University of California, Los Angeles PhD dissertation.
  25. Hansjakob Seiler. 1977. Cahuilla Grammar. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
    Hansjakob Seiler and Kojiro Hioki. 1979. Cahuilla Dictionary. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
  26. Jane H. Hill & Rosinda Nolasquez. 1973. Mulu'wetam, the First People: Cupeno Oral History and Language. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
    Jane H. Hill. 2005. A Grammar of Cupeño. University of California Publications in Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  27. Most authorities have agreed with Campbell in considering Juaneño (now extinct) a dialect of Luiseño, but Mithun (1999:539) classified it as a separate language.
    Alfred L. Kroeber & George William Grace. 1960. The Sparkman Grammar of Luiseño. University of California Publications in Linguistics 16. Berkeley: The University of California Press.
    William Bright. 1968. A Luiseno Dictionary. University of California Publications in Linguistics 51. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Villiana Hyde. 1971. An Introduction to the Luiseño Language. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press.
    Eric Bryant Elliott. 1999. "Dictionary of Rincon Luiseno," University of California, San Diego PhD dissertation.
  28. Ofelia Zepeda. 1983 . A Tohono O'odham Grammar. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press.
    Dean Saxton, Lucile Saxton, & Susie Enos. 1998. Dictionary: Tohono O'Odham/Pima to English, English to Tohono O'Odham/Pima. 2nd edition. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press.
  29. Roberto Escalante H. & Zarina Estrada Fernandez. 1993. Textos y gramatica del pima bajo. Sonora: Departamento de Letra y Linguistica, Universidad de Mexico.
  30. Burton W. Bascom. 1982. "Northern Tepehuan," Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar, Volume 3, Uto-Aztecan Grammatical Sketches. Ed. by Ronald W. Langacker. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 267-393.
  31. T. Willett. 1991. A reference grammar of southeastern Tepehuan. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington.
  32. J. Alden Mason. 1916. "Tepecano, A Piman language of western Mexico," Annals of the New York Academy of Science 25:309-416.
  33. Donald H. Burgess. 1984. "Western Tarahumara,"‭ Studies in Uto-Aztecan grammar 4: Southern Uto-Aztecan grammatical sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics 56. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 1-149.
  34. Wick R. Miller. 1996. La lengua guarijio: gramatica, vocabulario y textos. Mexico City: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM.
  35. Andrés Lionnet. 1978. El idioma tubar y los tubares. Segun documentos ineditos de C. S. Lumholtz y C. V. Hartman. Mexico, D. F: Universidad Iberoamericana.
  36. Andrés Lionnet. 1978. Elementos de la lengua cahita (yaqui-mayo). México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  37. John M. Dedrick & Eugene H. Casad, ed. 1999. Yaqui Language Structures. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
    David L. Shaul. 1999. Yoeme-English English-Yoeme Standard Dictionary. New York: Hippocrene Books.
  38. Howard Collard & E. Collard. 1962. Vocabulario Mayo. Vocabularios Indígenas No. 6. México: ILV.
    Jeff Burnham. 1984. Una gramática de la Lengua Mayo. Hermosillo, Sonora: Universidad de Sonora.
  39. Natal Lombardo. 1702. Arte de la Lengua Teguima vulgarmente llamada Opata. Mexico: Miguel de Ribera.
  40. Andrés Lionnet. 1986. El eudeve, un idioma extinto de Sonora (Study based on materials of J. Johnson, Loaysa, Bartlett, and Smith). Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico.
    David L. Shaul. 1991. "Eudeve morphosyntax: an overview," International Journal of American Linguistics 57:70-107.
  41. Eugene H. Casad. 1984. "Cora,"‭ Studies in Uto-Aztecan grammar 4: Southern Uto-Aztecan grammatical sketches. Ed. Ronald W. Langacker. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics 56. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington. Pages 153-149.
  42. José Luis Iturrioz Leza y Julio Ramírez de la Cruz, et al. 2001. Gramática Didáctica del Huichol: Vol. I. Estructura Fonológica y Sistema de Escritura. Departamento de Estudios en Lenguas Indígenas-Universidad de Guadalajara – Secretaria de Educación Pública.
  43. Yolanda Lastra de Suárez. 1986. Las áreas dialectales del náhuatl moderno. Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  44. Franz Boas. 1917. "El dialecto mexicano de Pochutla, Oaxaca," International Journal of American Linguistics 1:9-44.
  45. Lyle Campbell. 1985. The Pipil language of El Salvador. Mouton grammar library No. 1. Berlin: Mouton Publishers.
  46. Fray Alonso de Molina. 1555. Vocabulario en Lengua Castellana y Mexicana y Mexicana y Castellana. Reprinted, Porrúa México, 1992.
    Horacio Carochi. 1645. Arte de la lengua mexicana: con la declaración de los adverbios della. Reprinted, México D.F.: Porrúa, 1983.
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