Ch’uju unquy

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Kayman riy: wamp'una, maskana

Plantilla:Good article

Common cold
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A representation of the molecular surface of one variant of human rhinovirus.
Akllana hawa imankunawan
CIE-10 Plantilla:ICD10
CIE-9 Plantilla:ICD9
DiseasesDB 31088
MedlinePlus 000678
MeSH D003139
Unquspaykiqa hampikamayuqman riy Hampiqpa willaynin 

Kay ch’uju unquy (chantapas kay nasofaringitis, rinofaringitis, utaq ch’uju) huk chimpachikuq vías respiratorias superiores kaqmanta unquy kaytaq ñawpaqta sinqaman hap’in. Aswan riqsisqa unqunayaq kanku ch’uju, kunka nanay, qhuña chaymanta k’aja ima chaymanta qamchismanta chunka p’unchawtahina qukun, ichaqa wakin kutiqa kimsa simanatahina qukun. Aswan kay 200 virusmanta kay ch’uju unquyta hap’ichikun, ichaqa aswan riqsisqaqa kanku kay rinovirus kaqkuna.

<!—Hark’akuy, diagnóstico chaymanta fisiopatología ima --> Kay vías respiratorias superiores kaqmanta chimpachikuykunaqa rak’ikunku mayqin kurpu k’uchumanchus hap’ikun chaymanhina. Aswan riqsikuq kutitaqa, kay ch’uju unquyqa sinqaman, kunkaman (faringitis) chaymanta kay senos paranasales (sinusitis) kaqman ima hap’in. Kay unqunayaq qukun kay inmunológica kutichiy kurpumantarayku kay chimpachikuq kaqman manataq aswantachu kay tejido thantakuy kay virus kaqraykuhinachu. Aswan riqsisqa hark’ayqa kan makita mayllakuna, ichapas nikun kay uyapaq máscaras kaqkunata churakuy kusallataq.

Mana hampiy kay ch’uju unquypaq tiyanchu, ichaqa unqunayaqnin hampikunman. Kayqa aswan hap’ikuq runakunapurapi chimpachikuq unquy: machu runaqa iskayta utaq kimsa kutita watapi hap’ichikun, wawataq suqtamanta chunka iskayniyuqkama kutita. Kay unquy chimpakuykunaqa ñawpamantapacha runata qatimun.

Unanchaq chaymanta unqunayaq[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Aswan riqsisqa unqunayaq huk ch’uju unquymanta kanku, ch’uju, qhuña sinqa wichq’akuywan chaymanta kunka nanay ima. Wakin kutiqa, aycha nanay, sayk’u, uma nanay chaymanta yarqhay chinkapuy ima kanman.[1] 40% kaqpi casosmanta kunka nanay tiyan, 50% kaqpi ch’uju tiyan[2] chaymanta khuskanpi kay casosmanta aycha nanay.[3] Machu runaqa mana k’ajayuqchu kanku, ichaqa wawakunaqa ari.[3] Ch’ujuqa mana ancha sinchichu kay influenza kaqta qatiq kaqman tupachispa.[3] Kay ch’ujupas chaymanta k’ajapas ima machu runakunapi influenza ñisqata willaptinpas, rich’akuykuna tiyan kay iskay unquykunapi.[4] Achkha kay viruskunamanta ch’uju unquyta hap’ichikuq, kay asintomaticas chimpachikuykunata hap’ichillanmantaq.[5][6] Llimp’iqa kay llawsamanta utaq qhuñamantaqa ch’uwa, q’illu utaq q’umir kanman chaymanta mana willanchu ima laya viruschus kay chimpakuyta ruwachiq.[7]

Thaskiynin[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Aswan rikukuqpi, ch’uju unquyqa sayk’uywan, chiriwan, achhuykunawan chaymanta uma nanaywan ima qallarin. Chaymanta machkha p’unchaw qhipantaqa qhuña chaymanta ch’uju qallarin.[1] Unqunayaq kaqkunaqa kay ñawpaq 16 phanikunapi rikhurinman [8] chaymanta aswan sinchinman chayan iskaymanta tawa p’unchawmanhina qallarisqanmanta.[3][9] Aswan rikukuqpi qamchis p’unchawmanta chunka p’unchawpihina chinkapun, ichaqa kimsa semanata unayllanman.[10] 35-40% kaqpi kay wawakuna casosmanta, ch’ujuqa aswan chunka p’unchawkunamanta unayllan chaymanta aswan 25 kaqmanta 10% kaqpi.[11]

Nanachiq[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Virus[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay coronavirus kaqkunaqa huk qutuchasqa virus kanku ancha riqsisqakuna kay ch’uju unquyta hap’ichiqrayku. Huk microscopio electrónico kaqpi qhawakuptinku, huk muyu utaq pilluhinaman rich’akuspa rikukunku.

Kay ch’uju unquyqa huk viral chimpakuy kay vías respiratorias superiores kaqmanta. Kay aswan riqsikuq virus hap’ichiq kaqqa kan kay rinovirus kaq (30–80%), huk picornavirus laya kan kay 99 riqsisqa serotipos kaqwan.[12][13] Wakkunaq tiyapunku: coronavirus (10–15%), influenza (5–15%),[3] parainfluenza, virus sincitial respiratorio runamanta, adenovirus, enterovirus, chaymanta metapneumovirus.[14] Achkha kutiqa aswan huk virusmanta tiyan.[15] Tukuyta yupaspa, aswan kay 200 laya virales ukhina ch’uju unquykunamanta tiyan.[3]

Chimpachikuy[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay ch’uju unquymanta virusqa chimpakun kay wayrapi yakumanta (aerosol), chiqan tinkunakuna kay chimpachisqa sinqamanta yakukunawan utaq fómites kaqwan ima (chimpachisqa imakuna).[2][16] Mana yachakunraqchu mayqinchus kay ñankunamanta aswan chaninniyuq.[17] Kay viruskunaqa kawsankuman unayta wayrapi chaymanta runakunataq makinkupi, ñawinkupi chaymanta sinqankupi ima apankuman, ahinata imaynatachus kay chimpachiy rinhina.[16] Kay chimpachiyqa aswan rikukun kay guarderías kaqpi chaymanta yachaywasikunapi ima, mayqinpichus wawas pikunachus mana unqunapaq sistemas kaqninku mana allin hatunllasqaschu chaymanta pisi llimphus kanku khuska kachkankurayku.[18] Kay chimpachikuykunaqa wasiman apakunku chaymanta wak yawarmasikunamantaq chimpachikun.[18] Mana yachakunku kay wayra hallich’asqa vuelos comerciales nisqakunapi huk chimpakuy ñan kachkanta.[16] Ichaqa, pikunachus qayllaman chukunku chaykuna aswan qaylla chimpachikunamanta kanku.[17] Kay virus ruwachisqas kay rinovirus kaqrayku aswan chimpachiq kanku kay ñawpa kimsa p’unchawkuna unqunayaqmanta, chantataq aswan pisi chimpachikuqkunaman tukupunku.[19]

Clima[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Ñawpa ñiykunaqa ñin hukqa ch’uju unquyta hap’inman kay chiri pachapi unayta kaqrayku, parahina utaq invernal pachahina chaymanta chayhinata karqa imaynatachus unquy sutinta hap’irqa.[20] Kay kurpumanta chirillay ruwayninqa huk riesgo factorhina ch’aqwakuman apan kay ch’uju unquypaq.[21] Wakinkuna kay ch’uju unquyta hap’ichiq viruskunamanta estacionales kanku chaymanta aswanta hap’ikun kay chiri utaq huq’u pachapi.[22] Wakinkuna ñinku kayqa kan imaraykuchus wichq’asqa wasikunapi anchata kankurayku chaymanta wak runakuna qayllanpirayku; [23] aswanta kay wawakuna yachaywasiman kutinku chaykunapi.[18]Ichaqa, kay sistema respiratorio kaqpi tikraykunarayku kanman mayqinchus aswan manchhichiyta qukun.[23] Kay huq’u pacha achkhallachinman kay viral chimpachiyta imaraykuchus ch’aki wayra yanapan kay huch’uy partículas virales aswan karuman chayanankupaq chaymanta aswan unayta wayrapi kanankupaq. [24]

Wakkuna[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay achkha runa unquymanta hark’akunaqa, ruwasqa huk ñawpa tinkunarayku kay ch’uju unquy viruskunaman, huk sinchi llamk’ayniyuq kay viral mirayninmanta hark’ayninpi, imaynatachus rikuchikun kay aswan wayna ayllukunapihina mayqinkunachus achkha tasasniyuq kay respiratorias chimpachikuykunamanta.[25] Wak riesgo factorqa kan huk pisi mana unqunapaq kay.[25][26] Kayman k’askakun kay mana puñuy atikuy chaymanta ancha tuyu kay ima aswan riesgoyuq kay chimpachiyta llamk’achinapaq kay tinkuna qhipanta huk rinovirus kaqman. Ñikun efectosninman k’askasqa kachkanta kay mana unqunapaq sistema kaqpi.[27][28]

Fisiopatología[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay ch’uju unquyqa huk unquy kay vías respiratorias superiores kaqmanta

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Ñikun kay ch’uju unquy unqunayaq kaqninqa aswan k’askasqa kachkanku kay inmunológica kutichiywan kay virusman.[29] Kay mecanismo kay mana unqunapaq kutichiymantaqa sumaq riqsisqa sapa virusmanta. Ahinata, kay rinovirus kaqkunaqa chiqan tinkuywan chimpachikun; kay runa ICAM-1 receptoresman k’askakunku huk mana riqsisqakuna mecanismos kaqninta mayqinkunachus kay punkiymanta mediadores ruwaqkunata kacharinku.[29] Kay mediadores unqunayaqta ruwachinku.[29] Aswan rikukuqpi mana waqllinkuchu epitelio nasal kaqta.[3] Wakhinamanta, kay sincitial respiratorio (VSR) virusqa anchata chimpachikun chiqan tinkuywan chaymanta wayrapi yaku kaqninta. Chaymanta sinqapitaq kunkapitaq karinku manaraq vías respiratorias inferiores kaqman chayaptin.[30] Kay VSR kaqqa ari kay epitelial waqlliyta ruwan.[30] Kay parainfluenza aswan rikukuqpi sinqa, kunka chaymanta bronquios ima punkiyta qukun.[31] Huch’uy wawakunapiqa, tunqurita waqlliptin, kay crup unqunayaqninta qunman imaraykuchus kay vías respiratorias huch’uy kayninrayku.[31]

Diagnóstico[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay ukhinallachiy kay virales chimpachikuy vías respiratorias kaqpuramanta unqunayaq maypichus kanman ahinaman llamk’an. Kay ch’uju unquyqa aswanta sinqaman waqllin, kay faringitis kaqqa kunkaman, chaymanta bronquitis kaqqa surk’anman.[2] Ichaqa, achkha kikin unqunayaqniyuq kanman chaymanta achkha partes waqllisqas rikukunkuman.[2] Kay ch’uju unquyqa aswan rikukuqpi rinitis kaqhina utaq sinqa punkiy kaqhina riqsikun, huk tikrakuq ñiqiwan kay kunka punkiymanta.[32] Ancha rikukuq unqusqaqa sapan qhawakun.[3] Aswan rikukuqpiqa mana karunchakunchu kay agente viral kaqqa[32] chaymanta mana riqsiy atikunchu ima laya viruschus kasqanta kay unqunayaqpi umachakuspa.[3]

Hark’akuynin[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay físicas hark’akuykunaqa kay ch’uju unquy virus mirakuymanta hark’akunapaqqa, sumaq kaq hark’akuykunalla kankuman hark’akunapaq.[33] Kaytaq maki mayllakuykunawan chaymanta barbijos churakuywan ima kan. Kay hampiwasi kitipi, qara makikunata chaymanta batata ima churakunku.[33] Mana allinchu ruwanaqa huk cuarentena kaqtaqa imaraykuchus unquyqa ancha riqsisqa chaymanta unqunayaq pisi aqllasqas kanku. Vacunacionqa ancha sasa imaraykuchus ancha achkha involucrasqa virus kan chaymanta usqhaytapacha wiñanku.[33] kay huk allin vacunamanta paqarichiyqa kan, ahinataqa, pisi atikuq.[34]

Sapa kuti maki mayllakuyqa allinsina kanman kay ch’uju unquy virus chimpachiy pisillananpaq, aswanta wawakunapurapi.[35] Mana yachakunchu sichus antivirales kaqkunata chaymanta antibacteriales kaqkunata yapayqa kay maki mayllakuyman aswan kusa kasqanta.[35] Kay barbijos churakuyqa unqusqa runakunawan tinkuypiqa allin kanman kasqa; ichaqa, mana achkha rikukuq kanchu runakunamanta karunchasqa kachinapaq.[35] Kay suplementos zinc kaqwan hampikuyqa allin kanman ch’uju unquy casosta pisillachinapaq.[36] Kay sapa kuti jampi upyanaqa kay vitamina C kaqwan suplementosmanta mana ch’uju unquy riesgonta utaq sinchiyninta pisillachinchu.[37]

Hampikuynin[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Poster mayqinchus runakunata hampiq runanta tapunanpaq sunquchan kay ch’uju unquy hampikuyninpaq

Kunankamaqa mana hampikuna utaq qhura hampikuna kanchu mayqinkunamantachus allin hampiynin sumaq evidenciasniyuq kasqanta kay chimpakuymanta unayllanninta huch’uyllachinapaq.[38], Ahinatataq, hampikuyninqa unqunayaq kaqllata chinkachinqa.[39] Sumaqta samarina, yakusta upyana, huq’u ukhunchik kananpaq chaymanta q’uñi millu yakuwan kunkata qhulluqachiyta ruwana ima allin ruwaykuna hampikunapaq kan.[14] Aswan achkha kusallayninkunaqa kay hampikuyninmanta yapakunku kay placebo efectoman.[40]

Unqunayaq[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay hampikuyninkunaqa mayqinkunachus unqunayaq kaqkunata sanillachiy yanapaq analgésicos kaqkunawan chaymanta simples antipiréticos kay ibuprofeno kaqhina kaqkunawan ima hamun[41] chaymanta kay paracetamol kaqwan ima.[42] Evidencias kaqqa mana rikuchinchu kay ch’ujupaq hampikuna aswan kusa kasqankuta kay chhilli analgésicos kaqkunamanta[43] manataq wawakunapi qukunan munakunchu kay mana evidencia kaqtinrayku mayqinchus kusa kayninta utaq waqlliypaq potencialninta rikuchiq.[44][45] 2009 kaqpi, Canada ch’uju unquypaq chaymanta ch’ujupaq hampikunata pillamanpas ranqhay churakuyta hark'arqa suyk’a wawakunapi suqta watamanta, imaraykuchus mana kusa hampiynin kaqmanta rikukuq kasqanrayku chaymanta kay phuti riesgostachus ruwanrayku ima.[44] Mana allin kamachiynin kay dextrometorfano kaqmanta (huk pillamanpas ranqhakuq ch’ujupaq hampi) hark’ana kaqninman aparqa achkha suyukunapi.[46]

Machu runakunapi, qhuña unqunayaq antihistamínicos primera generación kaqmanta kaqwan pisillachikunman; ichaqa mana allin rikukuqniyuqman t’inkikun kay somnolencia kaqhina.[39] Wak sinqa kicharichiqkuna kay pseudoefedrina kaqhina allinllataq kanku kay ayllupi.[47] Kay ipratropio aerosol kaqpi qhuña unqunayaqta pisillachinman, ichaqa mana ancha kusachu kay sinqa wichq’akuypaq. [48] Kay antihistamínicos segunda generación kaqmanta mana ancha kusasinachu kankuman.[49]

Mana achkha yachakuy kaqrayku, mana yachakunchu sichus huk yapakuy kay ingesta yakukunapi allinllachinchus unqunayaqta utaq pisillachinchus kay respiratoria unquyta.[50] Chaymanta huk kikin willay mana kaynin tiyan kay rupha wayra q’usñichasqa churakuypaq.[51] Huk yachakuy rikuchirqa kay mentoladas jawikuna qhasqupi churakuyqa yanapanman kay ch’isipi ch’ujuta, sinqa wichq’akuyta chaymanta mana puñuy atiyta allinchachinanpaq.[52]

Antibióticos chaymanta antivirales kaqkuna[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Antibióticos kaqkunaqa mana allinchu kanchu kay infecciones virales kaqkunapaq chayraykutaq mana allinchu kanku kay ch’uju unquy virus kaqkunapaq.[53] Kay efectos secundarios kaqkunarayku, waqlliy atinkuman, ichaqa, sapakuti hampikamachikunku.[53][54] Wakin imaraykukuna imaraykuchus antibióticos kaqkunan hampikamachikunkurayku kanku unqusqap munaynin, hampiqruna imayllatapas ruway munaynin, chaymanta kay hasallay sinchiman tukuykuna hark’ayta mayqinkunachus kay antibióticos kaqkunaman ari ñinkuman.[55] Mana allin antivirales millachiqkuna kay ch’uju unquy hampikuyninpi tiyanchu, ichapas wakin ñawpa yachay mask’aykuna allinninkunata rikuchirqankupas.[39][56]

Wak aqyanapaq hampikuynin[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Ichapas achkha wak aqyanapaq hampikuynin kaptinpas, mana cientifica evidencia tiyanchu mayqinchus yanapanman kay hampikuyninta.[39] Mana achkha evidencia kanchu kay 2010 kaqpi willarinapaqhina utaq wich’unapaqhina kay miel kaqwan hampikunapaq utaq sinqa mayllakuyta.[57][58] Wakin yachaykuna willanku zinc kaqta upyana kay 24 phani ukhupi kay unqunayaq qallarichkanmantapacha mana unqusqa runakunapi ch’uju unquy unayllayninta chaymanta sinchillayninta pisillachin.[36] Kay achkha ukhinakuna kay yachaykunapi munachin aswan yachayta mask’anata yachanapaq imaynatachus chaymanta mayk’aqchus kay zinc allin kanman.[59] Kay vitamina C efecto kaqninqa kay ch’uju unquypi hatunpi yachakurqa mana allin tarikuywan, manataq ahinatachu kay qusqa pachakunapi, aswanta kay runakunapi pikunachus actividad fisica kaqta chiri kitikunapi ruwaq.[37][60] Evidencia kay echinaces kaqwan hampikuyqa mana sinchichu.[61][62] Kay ukhina laya Echinacea kaqwan suplementosqa ukhina kankuman allinllayninpi.[61] Mana yachakunchu sichus ajus allin kanman.[63] Huk evidencialla vitamina D kaqwan mana allin kayninta tarirqachu.[64]

Pronostico nisqa[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay ch’uju unquy mana sinchichu chaymanta aswan achkha kaqkuna unqunayaqninmanta huk semanapi allinllapunku.[2] Sichus sinchi champallaykuy tiyan chayqa ancha machu runakunapi, ancha wayna runakunapi utaq inmunosuprimidas runakunapi aswan rikukuqpi rikukun.[65] Secundarias infecciones bacteriales ruwakunman kay sinusitis kaqhina, faringitis kaqhina utaq otitis aguda kaqhina.[66] Tantiyakun 8% casosmanta sinusitis ruwakun, otitis kaqtaq ruwakun 30% casosmanta.[67]

Epidemiologia nisqa[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay ch’uju unquyqa aswan riqsisqa runa unquy kan[65] chaymanta tukuy ayllukunaman pachamanta hap’in.[18] Machu runakunaqa watapi iskaymanta phichqa infecciones kaqtahina hap’in[2][3] wawakunataq watapi suqtamanta chunka ch’uju unquykunatahina hap’inkuman (yachaywasipi kaqkunari watapi chunka iskayniyuq ch’uju unquyhinata hap’inkuman).[39] Kay sintomaticas chimpakuykuna yupayninqa machu runakunapi yapakun kay mana unqunapaq sistema mawq’allayninrayku.[25]

Rikhurimuynin[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Kay ch’uju unquy causanpas riqsisqa kaptinpas kay 1950s kaqpi, kay unquyqa runakunawan kachkarqa ñawpamantapacha.[68] Unqunayaqnin chaymanta hampikuynin allinta willakun kay papiro egipcio Ebers kaqpi, aswan riqsisqa mawq’a hampiq p’anqa, qillqasqa ñawpata kay siglo 16 AC kaqpi.[69] Ingles kaqpi sutiqa, “common cold” kay siglo 16 kaqpi apaykachakurqa, kay rich’akuyrayku unqunayaqninpi kay chiriman rikuchikuy imawan.[70]

Reino Unido kaqpi, kay Medical Research Council paqarichirqa kay Common Cold Unit 1946 kaqpi chaymanta chaypi karqa maypichus kay rinovirus tarikurqa kay 1956 kaqpi.[71] Kay 70 watakunapi, kay CCU kaq rikuchirqa kay interferones kaqwan hampikuyninqa kay thapachakuy pachapi kay rinovirus chimpachiy kaqmanta hark’an kay unquymanta,[72] ichaqa mana hasa hampikuyninta ruway atirqachu. Kay 1989 kaqpi unidad kaqta wichq’arqanku, iskay watamanta kay yachay mask’ana hunt’achikuptin kay zinc kaqmanta gluconato tabletas kaqmanta hark’anapaq kay ch’uju unquykunata kay rinovirus kaqrayku, kay huk allin hampikuyninlla kay unidad thaskiyninpi.[73]

Impacto economico nisqa[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Huk británico letrero kay Segunda Guerra Mundial kaqmanta mayqinchus willan ch’uju unquymanta costonta[74]

Aswan achkha pacha k’uchukunapi, mana allinta yachakunchu kay ch’uju unquy impacto kaqnin.[67] Kay Estados Unidos kaqpi, kay ch’uju unquy 75-100 junu jampiq runa tapuykunaman apan sapa wata, huk 7700 junu dólares watapi tantiyasqa chaninniyuq. Estadounidenses kaqkunaqa 2900 hunu dolaresta chikchanku kay pillamanpas ranqhay hampikunapi chaymanta 400 hunutataq kamachisqa hampikunapi kay unqunayaq allinllaypaq.[75] Aswan huk tercio runakunamanta huk jampiq runaman riqkuna huk antibióticos kamachiyta quchikurqanku, kaytaq efectosniyuq kay antibiótica k’ullukuypi.[75] Tantiyakun estadounidenses wawakuna 22-189 hunu yachaywasi p’unchawkunata sapa wata saqipunku kay ch’uju unquyrayku. Ahinatataq, tatakuna 126 hunu llamk’ana p’unchawkunata saqipunku ch’ujumanta unqusqa wawankuta qhawanankupaq. Kay 150 hunu saqipusqa llamk’ana p’unchawkunaman yapakuptin kay ch’ujumanta unqusqa llamk’aqkunarayku, kay total económico impacto kaqqa ch’uju unquymanta atipan kay 20 hunu dolaresta sapa wata.[14][75] Kay ch’uju unquyqa 40% saqipusqa llamk’ana kaqmanta huchachakun kay Estados Unidos kaqpi.[76]

Yachana mask’ay[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Achkha antivirales yanakurqanku, ichaqa 2009 kaqkama ni huk allin karqachu kay ch’uju unquypaq.[56] kay antiviral pleconaril millachiq yanakuchkan mayqinchus allin kanman kay picornaviruspaq, kay droga BTA-798 chaymantapas.[77] Kay oral churakuynin kay pleconaril kaqmanta ch’ampa hark’akuy rikuchin, chayraykutaq kay aerosol kaqpi kayninta yachaqakuchkan.[77]

Yachay mask’aqkuna kay Universidad Maryland, College Par chaymanta kay Universidad Wisconsin-Madison kaqmanta kaqkunaqa kay tukuy riqsisqa virusmanta mayqinkunachus ch’uju unquyta hap’ichiq genoma kaqninta tarirqanku.[78] Plantilla:-

Referencias[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

  1. 1,0 1,1 Eccles Pg. 24
  2. 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 Arroll B (March 2011). "Common cold". Clinical evidence 2011 (3). PMID 21406124. 
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 3,7 3,8 3,9 Eccles R (November 2005). "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza". Lancet Infect Dis 5 (11): 718–25. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 16253889. 
  4. Eccles Pg.26
  5. Eccles Pg. 129
  6. Eccles Pg.50
  7. Eccles Pg.30
  8. Textbook of therapeutics : drug and disease management (8. edición). Philadelphia, Pa. [u.a.]: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006. pp. 1882. ISBN 9780781757348. http://books.google.ca/books?id=aVmRWrknaWgC&pg=PA1882. 
  9. al.], edited by Helga Rübsamen-Waigmann ... [et (2003). Viral Infections and Treatment.. Hoboken: Informa Healthcare. pp. 111. ISBN 9780824756413. http://books.google.ca/books?id=AltZnmbIhbwC&pg=PA111. 
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  18. 18,0 18,1 18,2 18,3 al.], edited by Arie J. Zuckerman ... [et (2007). Principles and practice of clinical virology (6th edición). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. pp. 496. ISBN 978-0-470-51799-4. http://books.google.ca/books?id=OgbcUWpUCXsC&pg=PA496. 
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  42. Eccles R (2006). "Efficacy and safety of over-the-counter analgesics in the treatment of common cold and flu". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 31 (4): 309–319. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 16882099. 
  43. Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T (2008). Smith, Susan M. ed. "Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001831. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 18253996. 
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  45. Vassilev ZP, Kabadi S, Villa R (Mar 2010). "Safety and efficacy of over-the-counter cough and cold medicines for use in children". Expert opinion on drug safety 9 (2): 233–42. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 20001764. 
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  47. Taverner D, Latte GJ (2007). Latte, G. Jenny. ed. "Nasal decongestants for the common cold". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001953. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 17253470. 
  48. Albalawi ZH, Othman SS, Alfaleh K (July 2011). Albalawi, Zaina H. ed. "Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD008231. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 21735425. 
  49. Pratter MR (Jan 2006). "Cough and the common cold: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines". Chest 129 (1 Suppl): 72S–74S. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 16428695. 
  50. Guppy MP, Mickan SM, Del Mar CB, Thorning S, Rack A (February 2011). Guppy, Michelle PB. ed. "Advising patients to increase fluid intake for treating acute respiratory infections". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD004419. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 21328268. 
  51. Singh M, Singh M (May 2011). Singh, Meenu. ed. "Heated, humidified air for the common cold". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD001728. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 21563130. 
  52. Paul IM, Beiler JS, King TS, Clapp ER, Vallati J, Berlin CM (December 2010). "Vapor rub, petrolatum, and no treatment for children with nocturnal cough and cold symptoms". Pediatrics 126 (6): 1092–9. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 21059712. 
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  58. Kassel JC, King D, Spurling GK (March 2010). King, David. ed. "Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD006821. Error: Bad DOI specified. PMID 20238351. 
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  64. Murdoch, David R. (3 October 2012). "Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Adults<subtitle>The VIDARIS Randomized Controlled Trial</subtitle><alt-title>Vitamin D3 and Upper Respiratory Tract Infections</alt-title>". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 308 (13): 1333. Error: Bad DOI specified. 
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  78. Plantilla:Cite news

Bibliografía[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Plantilla:Refbegin

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Enlaces externos[llamk'apuy | pukyuta llamk'apuy]

Plantilla:Commons category

Plantilla:Viral diseases Plantilla:Respiratory pathology Plantilla:Common Cold

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